Several cases of polioencephalomyelitis caused by Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) have been recently reported in Québec herds.

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is an RNA virus in the family Picornaviridae. PSV is closely related to members of the Enterovirus genus and was previously known as porcine enterovirus 8 (PEV-8). Domestic and wild swine are the only known hosts for PSV.

PSV infection begins in the small intestine, where it replicates. The most common mode of transmission of PSV is fecal-oral. As the virus is hardy in the environment, fomites likely play a role in the transmission of the virus. PSV infections are commonly asymptomatic. PSV has been demonstrated in the feces of healthy swine, especially weaned piglets, in Brazil, Italy, Spain, Australia and USA.

Pathogenic strains of PSV have been reported in China, South Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. They can cause clinical syndromes including diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders (‘SMEDI syndrome’). The role of PSV as a pathogen, and more specifically as a cause of polioencephalomyelitis, is unclear. There is no specific data available on the morbidity and mortality of PSV infections in swine.

Polioencephalomyelitis induced by PSV mainly affects piglets 8 to 12 weeks old. Affected pigs demonstrate front and hind limb ataxia progressing to generalized weakness and lateral recumbency. Death may occur as soon as three to five days after the onset of clinical signs. Morbidity and mortality up to 20% have been reported. In USA, ISU, SDSU, KSU, and UMN diagnostic laboratories report 1 to 5 cases of PSV-induced polioencephalomyelitis every month.

Lesions seen with PSV-induced polioencephalomyelitis are consistent with other neurotropic viral infections, such as atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), porcine enterovirus (PEV), porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine astrovirus type 3 (PAstV‐3). Polioencephalomyelitis is generally characterized as subacute, multifocal and non-suppurative.

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most commonly used to detect PSV in fecal samples and nervous tissues. Preferred samples for central nervous system (CNS) disease include the spinal cord and the brain. In situ hybridization has also been used to demonstrate the virus in the CNS.

A real-time RT-PCR for detecting PSV in fecal samples and nervous tissues is now available at Biovet.

The test is run on request.

Feel free to contact us for further information.

 

References

  1. Arruda PH, Arruda BL, Schwartz KJ, et al. Detection of a novel sapelovirus in central nervous tissue of pigs with polioencephalomyelitis in the USA. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Apr;64(2):311-315.
  2. Leme RA, Silva DR, Lorenzetti E, et al. Longitudinal survey of Teschovirus A, Sapelovirus A, and Enterovirus G fecal excretion in suckling and weaned pigs. Braz J Microbiol. 2019;50(1):321-327.
  3. Li Y, Du L, Jin T, Cheng Y, et al. Characterization and epidemiological survey of porcine sapelovirus in China. Vet Microbiol. 2019; 232:13-21.
  4. Schock A, Gurrala R, Fuller H, et al. Investigation into an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by a neuroinvasive porcine sapelovirus in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol. 2014;172(3-4):381-9.

We want to inform you that we will soon offer a new real-time PCR (qPCR) test for detection of the PRRS virus. Like our previous qPCR, this test was developed in-house.
The new test will still detect and differentiate type 1 (European) and 2 (North American) PRRS viruses in the same reaction. Although only type 2 strains have been detected so far in Canada, both types are present in many countries, including the USA. Therefore, it is important to be able to detect both types of strains and to differentiate them immediately without having to use sequencing.

Within each type of PRRS virus, a wide variety of strains are constantly evolving. This characteristic represents a major challenge for diagnostic tests such as qPCR. Compared to the previous test, the new test includes more primers and probes and their composition has been diversified. These changes provide the new test with better diagnostic and analytical sensitivities.

The concentration of the virus in the samples is interesting information in some circumstances. Until now, this was expressed in TCID50 / mL. This unit is unfortunately not very intuitive. From now on, it will rather be expressed in genomic copies / mL which should be more understandable. In addition, we will also provide the Ct values (cycle threshold) as we do for our other qPCR tests.

We are confident that this new test will meet your needs even better.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


The presence of certain bacteria in ready-to-use boar semen can detrimentally affect semen quality over time. Consequently, the use of contaminated semen may result in poor fertility (returns to oestrus) and endometritis (vaginal discharges) in recipient females.

Most bacteria found in contaminated ready-to-use boar semen belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Among them, Serratia marcescens is probably the most important due to its strong spermicidal effect and its resistance to most antimicrobials used in semen extenders.

The detection of Serratia marcescens in boar semen or laboratory equipment is usually performed using bacteriological culture procedures. However, these techniques are time consuming (48–96 hours) and detect only living bacteria.

During the past few years, PCR technology has been used to quickly and accurately detect the presence of various bacterial species in a wide variety of samples, including semen.
PCR assays are also very sensitive and detect both living and dead organisms.

At Biovet, we have developed a real-time PCR assay (qPCR) that can detect the presence of Serratia marcescens in various samples quickly (< 24 hours) and accurately (< 10 cfu/mL).

Samples may include fresh or extended semen, as well as environmental samples.

The minimum sample volume required is 10 mL.

The test is performed every day from Monday to Friday.

Results are available within 24 hours after the receipt of samples.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


Biovet is proud to announce that a Influenza Virus Type A multispecies Antibody Test Kit, ELISA is now available!

Influenza Virus Type A multispecies Antibody Test Kit can be used in swine and several avian species. It is sensitive and specific compared to another popular commercial kit. Antibodies are detected within 7–14 days after infection and test results are available within 1.75 hours.

For further information, read our information leaflet or contact us.


Biovet now offers a new duplex qPCR assay for the simultaneous detection of porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and type 3 (PCV3).

In 2016, a new Circovirus (PCV3) was identified in the USA in cases of Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS) and abortions in sows as well as multisystemic histiolymphocytic inflammation in piglets. In these different cases, no other known virus (including PRRSV and PCV2) could be identified.

Since then, PCV3 has been identified in numerous countries, including Canada, China and several European countries. However the precise role of PCV3 remains so far to be clarified.

At Biovet, since May 2017, we offer real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect PCV3. This test will now be offered in duplex with PCV2.

The new duplex PCV2-PCV3 qPCR assay is now available and the test also includes quantification and typing of PCV2 (2a, 2b, 2d).

It will be performed once or twice a week.


Biovet is proud to announce the availability of new real time PCR assays (qPCR) allowing detection, differentiation and quantification of Group A, B and C Rotaviruses.

Rotaviruses are important agents of diarrhea in multiple species, including pigs. At least 4 Rotavirus groups (A, B, C, H) have been identified in this species. Their significance varies depending on the age of the piglets (Figure 1).

Group A Rotaviruses are found in several species (including humans). They have long been considered as most significant in pigs. However it appears that non-Group A Rotaviruses, especially type C, are an important cause of diarrhea in piglets, especially during the first week of life. By contrast, Group A Rotaviruses remain the most frequent after weaning. Group B Rotaviruses are less frequent that the other two. On the other hand, mixed infections are frequent, especially in the post-weaning period.

We have recently developed qPCR assays allowing detection, differentiation, and quantification of Group A, B and C Porcine Rotaviruses.

Samples to be submitted consist of intestinal contents or feces.

Feel free to contact us for more information.


Some weeks ago we informed you of the availability of a real time PCR allowing differentiating wild strains of PRRSV from MLV and ATP vaccine-like strains (BI).

Since then we have improved the test which can now also identify Fostera vaccine-like strains (Zoetis).

Please note that the samples have to be examined first with the regular PCR screening test.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


PRRSV surveillance partially relies on PCR testing of samples such as serum or oral fluids. In herds where vaccination is used, it is important to differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains.

Up to now, it was necessary to sequence the strains, which extended the response times and significantly increased costs. Moreover, sequencing requires relative high viral loads, which is not always the case, especially in oral fluids.

At Biovet, we recently developed a realtime qPCR, allowing differentiation of the ATP- and MLV-like vaccine strains from wild-type strains.

This new qPCR, along with the regular screening PCR, will allow you to determine more quickly and at a lower cost if you are dealing with ATP- or MLV-like strains or wild-type strains.

The ATP-MLV qPCR test will be performed from Monday to Friday.

For more information, see the technical document, or contact us


Biovet recently began offering new qPCR tests. To promote the diagnosis of respiratory infections in swine, Biovet is offering qPCR multi-testing for the following 3 agents:

  • Swine influenza virus type A (SIV type A)
  • PRRSV
  • Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Accepted samples are nasal swabs, lung tissues and oral fluids.

The tests will be performed 3 to 5 times a week.

The test request forms will be soon modified accordingly.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


New tools for early diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections now available at Biovet.

Early diagnosis of M. hyopneumoniae infections (M. hyop) is challenging. Currently, the usual methods such as serology on serum or PCR using nasal swabs, oral fluids or even oropharyngeal scrapings, give positive results only late after infection.

However it has been demonstrated recently by several research teams that it is possible to detect M. hyop very early after infection by using tracheo-bronchial swabbings or aspirations and very sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) tests.

Tracheo-bronchial swabbing is easier to perform than tracheo-bronchial aspiration and the results are quite similar or even better. It can be carried out on piglets from about 3 weeks of age and up to adult animals.

To learn more or to know the procedure, consult our information leaflet.

Please contact customer service for further information.