Influenza viruses are divided into four types: A, B, C and D. Influenza A viruses are the most common and can infect humans, swine, cattle, birds and many other animal species (Henritzi and al, 2019; Zhang and al, 2019).
Influenza B viruses mainly infect humans, but they can also occasionally infect swine (Takatsy and al 1969; Ran and al, 2015; Henritzi and al, 2019). A study of pig farms in the U.S. Midwest showed seroprevalence of 7.3% at the individual level and 38.5% at the farm level (Henritzi and al, 2018).
Influenza C viruses have also long been considered to be human-specific. However, they are occasionally also detected in swine (Guo YJ and al, 1983; Yuanji and al, 1983) and cattle (Zhang and al, 2019). A study of pig farms in Hyogo Prefecture (Yamaoka M, and al., 1991) found a seroprevalence of 19%.
Finally, influenza virus type D has been initially identified in swine (Hause et al, 2014). However, it is now considered more like a ruminant virus and has been identified in several countries on at least three continents (Liu and al, 2020). Cattle strains identified in Quebec were recently characterized (Saegerman et al, 2021).
At Biovet, we are occasionally facing influenza-like clinical problems that appear to be negative for influenza type A by PCR and ELISA antibody tests. In some of these cases, it is possible to identify porcine parainfluenza virus type 1 (PPiv-1) (Palinski and al, 2016; Park and al, 2019). However, most cases are found to be negative for these two viruses.
At Biovet, we have developed real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assays to detect and identify influenza viruses type B, C and D as well as PPiV-1 virus. These tests may be applied in cases negative for influenza type A.
SUBMITTING SAMPLES: nasal swabs, oral fluids, lungs (same as for influenza type A).
TRANSMITING RESULTS: Biovet will issue the test results within 1 to 2 business days. These tests are performed from Monday to Friday.
As part of a study of respiratory pathogens, we will make the “Influenza types B, C, D and PPiV-1 qPCR” combo free of charge when you request the combo “SRRP, M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza type A qPCR” combo. (DPOR-40139).
This offer is valid until December 31, 2021.
Pour plus d’informations, n’hésitez pas à communiquer avec nous !
- Guo YJ, Jin FG, Wang P, Wang M, Zhu JM. Isolation of influenza C virus from pigs and experimental infection of pigs with influenza C virus. J Gen Virol. 1983; 64(Pt 1): 177‐ 182
- Hause BM, et al. Characterization of a novel influenza virus in cattle and Swine: proposal for a new genus in the Orthomyxoviridae family. MBio 2014;5(2):e00031–14.
- Henritzi D, et al. A newly developed tetraplex real-time RT-PCR for simultaneous screening of influenza virus types A, B, C and D. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Jan;13(1):71-82.
- Liu R, et al. Influenza D virus. Curr Opin Virol. 2020 Oct;44:154-161.
- Palinski RM, et al. Widespread detection and characterization of porcine parainfluenza virus 1 in pigs in the USA. J Gen Virol. 2016 Feb;97(2):281-286.
- Park JY, et al. Detection, isolation, and in vitro characterization of porcine parainfluenza virus type 1 isolated from respiratory diagnostic specimens in swine. Vet Microbiol. 2019 Jan;228:219-225.
- Ran Z, et al. Domestic pigs are susceptible to infection with influenza B viruses. J Virol. 2015 May;89(9):4818-26.
- Saegerman C, et al. Influenza D virus in respiratory disease in Canadian, province of Québec, cattle: relative importance and evidence of new reassortment between different clades. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021 Mar 25. doi: 10.1111/tbed.14085. Online ahead of print.
- Takátsy G, Farkas E, Romvary J. Susceptibility of the domestic pig to influenza B virus. Nature 1969;222(5189):184.
- Yamaoka M, et al. Prevalence of antibody to influenza C virus among pigs in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Journal of general virology 1991;72(3):711–4.
- Yuanji G, et al. Isolation of influenza C virus from pigs and experimental infection of pigs with influenza C virus. Journal of General Virology 1983;64(1):177–82.
- Zhang H, et al. Development of a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of influenza A, B, C, and D viruses. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;95(1):59-66.
- Zhang H, et al. Influenza C Virus in Cattle with Respiratory Disease, United States, 2016–2018. Emerg Infect Dis 2018a;24(10):1926–9.