New real-time PCR test to detect Bibersteinia trehalosi

The latest quarterly report from the MAPAQ Cattle Network (1st quarter 2021) reported a case of purulent bronchopneumonia

The latest quarterly report from the MAPAQ Cattle Network (1st quarter 2021) reported a case of purulent bronchopneumonia caused by Bibersteinia trehalosi in a dairy cow and several respiratory episodes associated with this bacterium in North America over the past 10 years.

Originally identified in 1959 as a particular type of Pasteurella haemolytica, this bacterial species was renamed Bibersteinia trehalosi in 2007 in honor of Professor Ernest Biberstein of UC Davis to recognize his outstanding contributions to the study of Pasteurellaceae.

Indeed, B. trehalosi belongs to the Pasteurellaceae family, such as Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Histophilus somni. It is closely related to M. haemolytica. B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica have the same appearance on culture media. Both species can be differentiated using the Maldi Tof method. They can also be identified by specific PCR tests.
The virulent strains of B. trehalosi produce a powerful exotoxin (leucotoxin) that is largely responsible for the fibrinous pleuropneumonia lesions. There are also strains of B. trehalosi that do not produce this toxin and are considered as non virulent. Both types of strains can be differentiated using a specific PCR for the leukotoxin gene.

B. trehalosi was first identified in sheep with fibrinous pneumonia and septicaemia. It has also caused high mortality in populations of Western wild sheep (Bighorn sheep). Finally, it has been detected in cattle. In this species, it also causes pneumonia and septicaemia. Clinical signs can evolve very quickly and mortality can reach up to 10-15%.

In 2008 in California, B. trehalosi was more often detected than P. multocida or Histophilus somni in respiratory problems. In Wisconsin, however, between 2008 and 2017, it accounted for less than 10% of respiratory bacteria isolates. Recently, a vaccine containing M. haemolytica toxoid has been shown to provide good protection against an experimental B. trehalosi infection.
At Biovet, we recently developed a specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for B. trehalosi. As of June 1, it will be incorporated into our “Complete Bovine Respiratory PCR Profile” (viruses and bacteria) and our ” Bovine Bacterial Respiratory PCR Profile.” There will be no extra charge for these additions. Moreover, the RT-PCR B. trehalosi alone will also be available as individual test.

For further information, feel free to contact us.


References

  1. Bowersock TL, Sobecki BE, Terrill SJ, Martinon NC, Todd R, Meinert TR, Randy D, Leyh RD. Efficacy of a multivalent modified-live virus vaccine containing a Mannheimia haemolytica toxoid in calves challenge exposed with Bibersteinia trehalosi. Am J Vet Res. 2014; 75 (8): 770-776
  2. Brown SE, Bycroft KA, Adam A, Collett MG.Acute fibrinous pleuropneumonia and septicaemia caused by Bibersteinia trehalosi in neonatal calves in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2021;69(1):51-57.
  3. Campbell J. Bibersteinia trehalosi can cause sudden deaths in heifers. The Western Producer. 2018 (https://www.producer.com/livestock/bibersteinia-trehalosi-can-cause-sudden-deaths-in-heifers/)
  4. Collins RL. Bibersteinia trehalosi in Cattle – Another Component of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex? Cattle Practice. 2011; 19(1):9-12
  5. Cortese VS, Douglas A, Braun DA, Crouch D, Townsend Ch, Zukowski B. Case report – Peracute to acute fatal pneumonia in cattle caused by Bibersteinia trehalosi. The Bovine Practitioner. 2012;46 (2):138-142.
  6. Hanthorn CJ. Pathogenicity of Bibersteinia trehalosi in bovine calves. Thèse Iowa State University. 2014 (https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4981&context=etd)
  7. Holschbach CL, Aulik NPoulsen K,  Ollivett Prevalence and temporal trends in antimicrobial resistance of bovine respiratory disease pathogen isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2008-2017. J Dairy Sci. 2020;103(10):9464-9472.
  8. Killion HJ, Edwards E, Jennings-Gaines J, Wood M, Fox KSondgeroth Development and validation of a real-time PCR specific for the leukotoxin gene of Bibersteinia trehalosi. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018;30(4):589-592.
  9. Kuhnert P, Bisgaard M, Korczak BM, Schwendener S, Christensen H, Frey J. Identification of animal Pasteurellaceae by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;89(1):1-7.
  10. Shapiro J. Slobbering sheep: Bibersteinia trehalosi septicemia in lambs. Animal Health Laboratory Newsletter 2019;23(3):6-7.
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