Several cases of polioencephalomyelitis caused by Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) have been recently reported in Québec herds.

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is an RNA virus in the family Picornaviridae. PSV is closely related to members of the Enterovirus genus and was previously known as porcine enterovirus 8 (PEV-8). Domestic and wild swine are the only known hosts for PSV.

PSV infection begins in the small intestine, where it replicates. The most common mode of transmission of PSV is fecal-oral. As the virus is hardy in the environment, fomites likely play a role in the transmission of the virus. PSV infections are commonly asymptomatic. PSV has been demonstrated in the feces of healthy swine, especially weaned piglets, in Brazil, Italy, Spain, Australia and USA.

Pathogenic strains of PSV have been reported in China, South Korea, United Kingdom, and USA. They can cause clinical syndromes including diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders (‘SMEDI syndrome’). The role of PSV as a pathogen, and more specifically as a cause of polioencephalomyelitis, is unclear. There is no specific data available on the morbidity and mortality of PSV infections in swine.

Polioencephalomyelitis induced by PSV mainly affects piglets 8 to 12 weeks old. Affected pigs demonstrate front and hind limb ataxia progressing to generalized weakness and lateral recumbency. Death may occur as soon as three to five days after the onset of clinical signs. Morbidity and mortality up to 20% have been reported. In USA, ISU, SDSU, KSU, and UMN diagnostic laboratories report 1 to 5 cases of PSV-induced polioencephalomyelitis every month.

Lesions seen with PSV-induced polioencephalomyelitis are consistent with other neurotropic viral infections, such as atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), porcine enterovirus (PEV), porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine astrovirus type 3 (PAstV‐3). Polioencephalomyelitis is generally characterized as subacute, multifocal and non-suppurative.

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most commonly used to detect PSV in fecal samples and nervous tissues. Preferred samples for central nervous system (CNS) disease include the spinal cord and the brain. In situ hybridization has also been used to demonstrate the virus in the CNS.

A real-time RT-PCR for detecting PSV in fecal samples and nervous tissues is now available at Biovet.

The test is run on request.

Feel free to contact us for further information.

 

References

  1. Arruda PH, Arruda BL, Schwartz KJ, et al. Detection of a novel sapelovirus in central nervous tissue of pigs with polioencephalomyelitis in the USA. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017 Apr;64(2):311-315.
  2. Leme RA, Silva DR, Lorenzetti E, et al. Longitudinal survey of Teschovirus A, Sapelovirus A, and Enterovirus G fecal excretion in suckling and weaned pigs. Braz J Microbiol. 2019;50(1):321-327.
  3. Li Y, Du L, Jin T, Cheng Y, et al. Characterization and epidemiological survey of porcine sapelovirus in China. Vet Microbiol. 2019; 232:13-21.
  4. Schock A, Gurrala R, Fuller H, et al. Investigation into an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by a neuroinvasive porcine sapelovirus in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol. 2014;172(3-4):381-9.

We want to inform you that we will soon offer a new real-time PCR (qPCR) test for detection of the PRRS virus. Like our previous qPCR, this test was developed in-house.
The new test will still detect and differentiate type 1 (European) and 2 (North American) PRRS viruses in the same reaction. Although only type 2 strains have been detected so far in Canada, both types are present in many countries, including the USA. Therefore, it is important to be able to detect both types of strains and to differentiate them immediately without having to use sequencing.

Within each type of PRRS virus, a wide variety of strains are constantly evolving. This characteristic represents a major challenge for diagnostic tests such as qPCR. Compared to the previous test, the new test includes more primers and probes and their composition has been diversified. These changes provide the new test with better diagnostic and analytical sensitivities.

The concentration of the virus in the samples is interesting information in some circumstances. Until now, this was expressed in TCID50 / mL. This unit is unfortunately not very intuitive. From now on, it will rather be expressed in genomic copies / mL which should be more understandable. In addition, we will also provide the Ct values (cycle threshold) as we do for our other qPCR tests.

We are confident that this new test will meet your needs even better.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


The presence of certain bacteria in ready-to-use boar semen can detrimentally affect semen quality over time. Consequently, the use of contaminated semen may result in poor fertility (returns to oestrus) and endometritis (vaginal discharges) in recipient females.

Most bacteria found in contaminated ready-to-use boar semen belong to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Among them, Serratia marcescens is probably the most important due to its strong spermicidal effect and its resistance to most antimicrobials used in semen extenders.

The detection of Serratia marcescens in boar semen or laboratory equipment is usually performed using bacteriological culture procedures. However, these techniques are time consuming (48–96 hours) and detect only living bacteria.

During the past few years, PCR technology has been used to quickly and accurately detect the presence of various bacterial species in a wide variety of samples, including semen.
PCR assays are also very sensitive and detect both living and dead organisms.

At Biovet, we have developed a real-time PCR assay (qPCR) that can detect the presence of Serratia marcescens in various samples quickly (< 24 hours) and accurately (< 10 cfu/mL).

Samples may include fresh or extended semen, as well as environmental samples.

The minimum sample volume required is 10 mL.

The test is performed every day from Monday to Friday.

Results are available within 24 hours after the receipt of samples.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


Biovet is proud to announce that its Agri-Food Microbiology Laboratory has been certified by the Canadian Standards Council (SCC) as “Conforms with requirements of CAN-P-1587, CAN-P-4E (ISO/IEC 17025)”. This concerns a National Standard Method for Salmonella Enteritidis Culture and Isolation from Poultry Environmental Samples, approved by the CFIA.

Biovet operates a laboratory accredited by CFIA and SCC offering a full range of veterinary and agri-food analysis services. Our laboratories are open 6 days and operate 7 days a week. Moreover, we have an efficient pickup service providing the transport of samples in Quebec as soon as possible, even in rural areas.

For further information, please contact us.

1 CFIA : Canadian Food Inspection Agency
2 See our Scope of Accreditation on our Website (Agri-Food section).


Maldi-Tof petriSince we started using our new Maldi Tof bacterial identification device, we have received many questions regarding the interpretation of testing reports mentioning various species of Staphylococci, such as S. chromogenes, S. simulans, S. xylosus, S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. cohni or S. sciuri.

Before using the Maldi Tof device, we reported these species under the generic term “Staphylococcus spp” because we could not identify them accurately. In the scientific literature, these species are also often referred to as “coagulase-negative staphylococci“. About 25 species of these species have been isolated from milk samples, the most common being those cited above.

Although Staphylococci spp. are the bacterial species most frequently isolated from milk samples, they have long been considered as minor pathogens. However, recent studies suggest that different species may differ in their epidemiology and virulence. For example, S. chromogenes, S. simulans and S. xylosus would increase the somatic cell counts. S. epidermidis would be adapted to the udder, whereas S. haemolyticus would have an environmental origin.

The precise identification of these different species made possible by the use of Maldi Tof technology should ultimately help you to better understand their relative importance in your herds and adapt your control tools accordingly.

For further information, feel free to contact us.


Maldi-Tof petriBiovet has just acquired a “Maldi Biotyper Smart System”, a bacterial identification machine using the MALDI TOF MS technology. This device enables extremely fast and accurate identification of bacterial isolates. This is particularly useful for bacterial species that are difficult or impossible to identify with traditional methods.

Our pickup service guarantees fast and safe transportation of your samples to our laboratories. Moreover, as these are operational 6 days out of 7, 18 hours out of 24, your samples are processed as soon as we receive them.

From now on, thanks to our new Maldi Tof equipment, test results (with precise identification) will be e-mailed to you 24 to 48 hours after receipt of the samples and they will also be accessible via the Internet using our Bionet system.

Note that this improved service, even faster and more precise, will be offered at no additional cost.

No doubt this will allow you to ensure even better control of bacterial infections.

For further information, feel free to contact us.


Maldi-Tof petriBiovet has just acquired a “Maldi Biotyper Smart System”, a bacterial identification machine using MALDI TOF MS technology. This device enables extremely fast and accurate identification of bacteria as soon as isolates are obtained. This is particularly useful for bacterial species difficult or impossible to identify with traditional methods, as is the case for coagulase-negative Staphylococci.

Our home pickup service guarantees fast and safe transportation of your samples to our laboratories. Moreover, being operational 6 days out of 7, 18 hours out of 24, your samples are processed as soon as we receive them.

From now on, with our new Maldi Tof equipment, results (with precise identification) will be e-mailed to you 24 to 48 hours after receipt of the samples and will also be accessible via the Internet using our Bionet system.

Note that this improved service, even faster and more precise, will be offered at no additional cost.

No doubt this will allow you to ensure even better control of mastitis.

For further information, please feel free to contact us.


Biovet now offers a new duplex qPCR assay for the simultaneous detection of porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and type 3 (PCV3).

In 2016, a new Circovirus (PCV3) was identified in the USA in cases of Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome (PDNS) and abortions in sows as well as multisystemic histiolymphocytic inflammation in piglets. In these different cases, no other known virus (including PRRSV and PCV2) could be identified.

Since then, PCV3 has been identified in numerous countries, including Canada, China and several European countries. However the precise role of PCV3 remains so far to be clarified.

At Biovet, since May 2017, we offer real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect PCV3. This test will now be offered in duplex with PCV2.

The new duplex PCV2-PCV3 qPCR assay is now available and the test also includes quantification and typing of PCV2 (2a, 2b, 2d).

It will be performed once or twice a week.


Biovet now offers a new quantitative PCR profile for the diagnosis of abortion in cattle.

In cattle, abortions normally occur at a relatively low rate of approximately 3% to 5%. Bovine abortions may result from numerous and varied causes—infectious and non-infectious. Infectious causes, however, are the most numerous and the most frequent. Among them, the most common are:

  • viruses (BVDV, IBR)
  • bacteria (Trueperella pyogenes, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus spp, Campylobacter spp., Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Ureaplasma diversum)
  • protozoa (Neospora caninum, Tritrichomonas fœtus)
  • fungi (Aspergillus spp)

Because there are numerous possible causes of abortion, laboratory tests are essential to try to identify them. With regard to infectious agents, the detection of many of these agents using traditional methods is long and difficult. However, in recent years, faster and more sensitive molecular methods have been developed to replace conventional methods. These include, in particular, quantitative PCR (qPCR). qPCR tests are now available for many infectious agents responsible for abortions in cattle. Biovet is proud to announce that a set of tests is now available to detect several agents of bovine abortion.

The complete screening profile includes:

  • viruses: BVDV and BoHV1 (IBR)
  • bacteria: Campylobacter spp., Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp. and Ureaplasma diversum
  • protozoa: Neospora caninum and Tritrichomonas fœtus

In addition, we also offer a simplified profile, including the detection of:

  • BVDV and BoHV1 (IBR)
  • Leptospira spp
  • Neospora caninum

The samples to be submitted are fetal tissues (lung, kidney, heart, stomach contents) and placenta (placentome). For the purpose of the analysis, the tissues will be pooled in the laboratory.
The time required to complete all analyses is 4 to 5 days.

Furthermore, we recommend completing these tests with a bacteriological examination in order to detect bacteria such as Trueperella pyogenes, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus spp or Listeria monocytogenes.

Please feel free to contact us for further information.


Recurrent cases of mastitis?

What if the cause was in the bedding?

Several bacteria present in bedding can cause so-called environmental mastitis. In particular, these are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus uberis
When such cases of mastitis occur recurrently, testing the bedding may be useful for assessing its microbiological characteristics.

Biovet offers you a “bedding profile” with counts of the following bacterial species: total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total coliforms and Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

Turnaround Time: between 3-5 days to obtain the results.

For further information, contact us.

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